29 January 2019 – According to a new report from WWF, while there is a small but not insignificant potential for the production of sustainable biofuels in sub-Saharan Africa, this should be prioritised for the aviation industry. Read more…
26 November 2018 – The market for organic wine will grow rapidly in the next five years as environmentally-conscious consumers increasingly favour pesticide-free wines, but their market share will remain relatively small globally, a study showed. Read more…
12 February 2018 – Genetically modified (GM) “male-sterile” mosquitoes are due to be released in Burkina Faso this year by the Target Malaria research consortium. However, Target Malaria acknowledges that there are no benefits to the proposed GM mosquito release.
The project is set to apply for a permit to make an open release of 10,000 GM Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes: most likely in the village of Bana, west of Bobo Dioulasso.i The GM mosquitoes were exported from Imperial College in London to Burkina Faso in November 2016 and are currently in “contained use” facilities.
The open release is intended to test the infrastructure and systems for future release for, as yet, experimental technologies, notably “gene drive” mosquitoes. Target Malaria’s ultimate aim is to make open releases of gene drive mosquitoes, with the aim of reducing the population of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, which can transmit the parasite that causes malaria. The hope is that reducing the mosquito population will reduce the risk of malaria transmission and hence disease incidence.
Malaria is a serious public health issue, affecting millions of people annually. Africa continues to carry a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden, although since 2000, the malaria death rates in Africa have decreased by 66% among all age groups, and by 71% among children.ii The declines in malaria incidence and deaths are attributable to extensive and effective use of insecticide treated bed-nets. The search for solutions, particularly for vector control, nevertheless continues, due to resistance to the insecticide used in bed-nets.
However, the proposed release of GM male-sterile mosquitoes in 2018, meant to only be for experimental purposes, is not expected to deliver any benefits for malaria control in Burkina Faso. This is because repeated large releases would be needed to seek to suppress the wild population of mosquitoes, which, even if successful, would be prohibitively expensive.
“Conducting experiments with no potential benefit may be regarded as a waste of time and money,” said Lim Li Ching, Senior Researcher from the Third World Network. “Furthermore, medical research that poses risks but brings no benefits is unethical”iii.
Some of the likely risks of releasing GM male-sterile mosquitoes into the open include the inadvertent release of biting female mosquitoes, as a result of imperfect sex sorting of mosquitoes; or the possible failure of the sterility mechanism.
Although Target Malaria claims to be engaging local populations and obtaining their consent, consent must be fully informed to meet ethical requirements. This cannot be the case until a comprehensive risk assessment has been published and been subject to open and transparent public consultation. Any decision on open releases of GM mosquitoes requires public consultation, as mandated by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, to which Burkina Faso is a Party.
“Releasing risky GM mosquitoes into the environment, for absolutely no benefit whatsoever, is completely unacceptable”, said Mariam Mayet, Executive Director of the African Centre for Biodiversity. “We call for the application to be immediately withdrawn, or rejected by the authorities in Burkina Faso”.
The main challenges to malaria control are a lack of sustainable and predictable funding, conflict in malaria-endemic areas, and changes in climate patterns.iv What is needed is a more holistic approach to significantly and sustainably decrease the burden of malaria – one that integrates interventions and research on health, climate, agriculture (and eventually economics and housing) – in tackling the main factors contributing to the disease and its transmission.v
“The proposed release of GM mosquitoes in Burkina Faso is an expensive PR stunt which will do nothing to help to reduce malaria”, said Dr Helen Wallace, Director of GeneWatch UK, “This is a distraction, a false solution, and a major opportunity cost”.
Notes to Editors:
- Target Malaria is a consortium of research institutes that receives core funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Open Philanthropy Project Fund, an advised fund of Silicon Valley Community Foundation. Individual laboratories also receive additional funding from a variety of sources to support each laboratory’s work, including the United Kingdom government (the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Medical Research Council), the Wellcome Trust (a UK-based charity), the European Commission, the Ugandan Ministry of Health, and the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST). (See http://targetmalaria.org/who-we-are/)
- “Gene drive” is a way of trying to spread genetically engineered traits through a whole population of plants or animals. In the Target Malaria project, the aim of the gene drive is to spread a genetic trait that biases the sex ratio of the mosquito population towards male mosquitoes, thus suppressing the mosquito population. However, the technology to do so does not yet exist and may not be successful. There have been many warnings, including from scientists working in the area of gene drive, that gene drive may be uncontrollable and could have unintended consequences, and civil society organisations have called for a moratorium on this technique. (See http://www.etcgroup.org/content/160-global-groups-call-moratorium-new-genetic-extinction-technology-un-convention
- GM Mosquitoes in Burkina Faso is a briefing paper published by the African Centre for Biodiversity, Third World Network and GeneWatch UK. It is available (in English and French) at
i In a remote West African village, a revolutionary genetic experiment is on its way – if residents agree to it. STAT News. 14th March 2017. https://www.statnews.com/2017/03/14/malaria-mosquitoes-burkina-faso/
ii African Leaders’ Malaria (ALMA) Malaria in Africa factsheet. http://alma2030.org/sites/default/files/reference-document/malaria_fact_sheet_0.pdf
iii WMA Declaration of Helsinki – Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/
iv World Malaria Report 2017, World Health Organization, Geneva. http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report/en/
v A more holistic response to malaria is overdue, April 22, 2016
26 September 2017 – Scientists said Monday they had unravelled the genetic code of pearl millet, the staple food of an estimated 100 million people living in some of the world’s driest areas. Read more…
11 August 2017 – A New Gene Editing Breakthrough Could Allow Us to Transplant Pig Organs Into Humans. Read more…
11 July 2017 – A year after the second decade of commercialisation of biotech/GM crops in 2016, 26 countries grew 185.1m hectares of biotech crops – an increase of 5.4m hectares or 3% from 179.7m hectares in 2015. Read more…
26 June 2017 – Several wine estates in South Africa are following the trend of converting to organic wine producing and processing, in the footsteps of its major export markets: the European Union (EU), United Kingdom (UK), United States (US) and Canada. However, is organic wine production as financially sustainable as it is environmentally? Read more…
An organic diet has never been more in style than it is right now, with millions of consumers willing to shell out extra dollars for organic foods. Most of us have a vague idea that organic is better because it’s more natural and free of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and pesticides. Read more…
German cabinet approves draft law banning GMO crops
The German cabinet has approved a draft law banning cultivation of crops with genetically modified organisms (GMOs), government sources told Reuters on Wednesday.
Germany had announced in September 2015 that it will ban cultivation of crops with GMOs under new European Union rules allowing member states to opt out of their cultivation.
An EU law approved in 2015 cleared the way for new GMO crops to be approved after years of deadlock. But the law also gave individual countries the right to ban GMO crops even after they have been approved as safe by the European Commission.
Under the draft German law, applicants seeking EU approval to cultivate GMO crops will be asked by the German government to remove Germany from the area in the EU where the crops are approved for growing.
Widely-grown in the Americas and Asia, GMO crops in Europe face divided opinion. Britain is partly in favor of them, while France and Germany are among countries that oppose them.
There is general agreement in Germany that the country should ban GMOs but disagreement whether the bans should be imposed by federal or state authorities caused a long delay in agreeing the draft law on the ban.
(Reporting by Hans-Edzard Busemann, writing by Michael Hogan, editing by Louise Heavens)
28 November 2016 – http://www.reuters.com/article/us-germany-gmo-idUSKBN12X13S